Oncology



Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist.[1] The name's etymological origin is the Greek word ὄγκος (óngkos), meaning 1. "burden, volume, mass" and 2. "barb", and the Greek word λόγος (logos), meaning "study".[2] The neoclassical term oncology was used from 1618, initially in neo-Greek, in cognizance of Galen's work on abnormal tumors, De tumoribus præter naturam (Περὶ τῶν παρὰ φύσιν ὄγκων).[3]

Cancer survival has improved due to three main components: improved prevention efforts to reduce exposure to risk factors (e.g., tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption),[4] improved screening of several cancers (allowing for earlier diagnosis),[5] and improvements in treatment.[6][7]

Cancers are often managed through discussion on multi-disciplinary cancer conferences[8] where medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, radiation oncologist, pathologists, radiologists, and organ specific oncologists meet to find the best possible management for an individual patient considering the physical, social, psychological, emotional, and financial status of the patient.[9] It is very important for oncologists to keep updated with respect to the latest advancements in oncology, as changes in management of cancer are quite common.

Because a cancer diagnosis can cause distress and anxiety,[10] clinicians may use a number of strategies such as SPIKES[11] for delivering the bad news.[12]

Cancer screening is recommended for cancers of breast,[18] cervix,[19] colon,[20] and lung.[21]

Signs and symptoms usually depend on the size and type of cancer.

Diagnostic and staging investigations depend on the size and type of malignancy.

Blood investigations including hemoglobin, total leukocyte count, platelet count, peripheral smear, red cell indices.

Bone marrow studies including aspiration, flow cytometry,[42] cytogenetics,[43] fluorescent in situ hybridisation and molecular studies.[44]

Excision biopsy of lymph node for histopathological examination,[45] immunohistochemistry,[46] and molecular studies.[47]

Blood investigations include lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum uric acid, and kidney function tests.[48]

Imaging tests such as computerised tomography (CT scan), positron emission tomography (PET CT).[49]

Bone marrow biopsy.[50]

Biopsy for histopathology and immunohistochemistry.[51]

Imaging tests like X-ray, ultrasonography, computerised tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and PET CT.[52]

Endoscopy including Naso-pharyngoscopy, Direct & Indirect Laryngoscopy, Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Colonoscopy, Cystoscopy.

Tumor markers including alphafetoprotein (AFP),[53] Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG),[53] Carcinoembionic Antigen (CEA),[54] CA 125,[55] Prostate specific antigen (PSA).[56]

Treatment depends on the size and type of cancer.

It includes Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL):

Includes acute and chronic leukemias. Acute leukemias includes acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Chronic leukemias include chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).

Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist.[1] The name's etymological origin is the Greek word ὄγκος (óngkos), meaning 1. "burden, volume, mass" and 2. "barb", and the Greek word λόγος (logos), meaning "study".[2] The neoclassical term oncology was used from 1618, initially in neo-Greek, in cognizance of Galen's work on abnormal tumors, De tumoribus præter naturam (Περὶ τῶν παρὰ φύσιν ὄγκων).[3]

Cancer survival has improved due to three main components: improved prevention efforts to reduce exposure to risk factors (e.g., tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption),[4] improved screening of several cancers (allowing for earlier diagnosis),[5] and improvements in treatment.[6][7]

Cancers are often managed through discussion on multi-disciplinary cancer conferences[8] where medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, radiation oncologist, pathologists, radiologists, and organ specific oncologists meet to find the best possible management for an individual patient considering the physical, social, psychological, emotional, and financial status of the patient.[9] It is very important for oncologists to keep updated with respect to the latest advancements in oncology, as changes in management of cancer are quite common.

Because a cancer diagnosis can cause distress and anxiety,[10] clinicians may use a number of strategies such as SPIKES[11] for delivering the bad news.[12]

Cancer screening is recommended for cancers of breast,[18] cervix,[19] colon,[20] and lung.[21]

Signs and symptoms usually depend on the size and type of cancer.

Diagnostic and staging investigations depend on the size and type of malignancy.

Blood investigations including hemoglobin, total leukocyte count, platelet count, peripheral smear, red cell indices.

Bone marrow studies including aspiration, flow cytometry,[42] cytogenetics,[43] fluorescent in situ hybridisation and molecular studies.[44]

Excision biopsy of lymph node for histopathological examination,[45] immunohistochemistry,[46] and molecular studies.[47]

Blood investigations include lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum uric acid, and kidney function tests.[48]

Imaging tests such as computerised tomography (CT scan), positron emission tomography (PET CT).[49]

Bone marrow biopsy.[50]

Biopsy for histopathology and immunohistochemistry.[51]

Imaging tests like X-ray, ultrasonography, computerised tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and PET CT.[52]

Endoscopy including Naso-pharyngoscopy, Direct & Indirect Laryngoscopy, Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Colonoscopy, Cystoscopy.

Tumor markers including alphafetoprotein (AFP),[53] Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG),[53] Carcinoembionic Antigen (CEA),[54] CA 125,[55] Prostate specific antigen (PSA).[56]

Treatment depends on the size and type of cancer.

It includes Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL):

Includes acute and chronic leukemias. Acute leukemias includes acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Chronic leukemias include chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).

Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist.[1] The name's etymological origin is the Greek word ὄγκος (óngkos), meaning 1. "burden, volume, mass" and 2. "barb", and the Greek word λόγος (logos), meaning "study".[2] The neoclassical term oncology was used from 1618, initially in neo-Greek, in cognizance of Galen's work on abnormal tumors, De tumoribus præter naturam (Περὶ τῶν παρὰ φύσιν ὄγκων).[3]

Cancer survival has improved due to three main components: improved prevention efforts to reduce exposure to risk factors (e.g., tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption),[4] improved screening of several cancers (allowing for earlier diagnosis),[5] and improvements in treatment.[6][7]

Cancers are often managed through discussion on multi-disciplinary cancer conferences[8] where medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, and organ-specific oncologists meet to find the best possible management for an individual patient considering the physical, social, psychological, emotional, and financial status of the patient.[9] It is very important for oncologists to keep up-to-date with the latest advancements in oncology, as changes in the management of cancer are quite common.

Because a cancer diagnosis can cause distress and anxiety,[10] clinicians may use a number of strategies such as SPIKES[11] for delivering the bad news.[12]

Cancer screening is recommended for cancers of breast,[18] cervix,[19] colon,[20] and lung.[21]

Signs and symptoms usually depend on the size and type of cancer.

Diagnostic and staging investigations depend on the size and type of malignancy.

Blood investigations including hemoglobin, total leukocyte count, platelet count, peripheral smear, red cell indices.

Bone marrow studies including aspiration, flow cytometry,[42] cytogenetics,[43] fluorescent in situ hybridisation and molecular studies.[44]

Excision biopsy of lymph node for histopathological examination,[45] immunohistochemistry,[46] and molecular studies.[47]

Blood investigations include lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum uric acid, and kidney function tests.[48]

Imaging tests such as computerised tomography (CT scan), positron emission tomography (PET CT).[49]

Bone marrow biopsy.[50]

Biopsy for histopathology and immunohistochemistry.[51]

Imaging tests like X-ray, ultrasonography, computerised tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and PET CT.[52]

Endoscopy including Nasopharyngoscopy, Direct & Indirect Laryngoscopy, Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Colonoscopy, Cystoscopy.

Tumor markers including alphafetoprotein (AFP),[53] Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (β-HCG),[53] Carcinoembionic Antigen (CEA),[54] CA 125,[55] Prostate specific antigen (PSA).[56]

Treatment depends on the size and type of cancer.

It includes Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL):

Includes acute and chronic leukemias. Acute leukemias includes acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Chronic leukemias include chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).

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