Turkish Airlines

Turkish Airlines (Turkish: Türk Hava Yolları) is the national flag carrier airline of Turkey. As of August 2019, it operates scheduled services to 315 destinations in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas, making it the largest mainline carrier in the world by number of passenger destinations.[8][9][10] The airline serves more destinations non-stop from a single airport than any other airline in the world,[11] and flies to 126 countries, more than any other airline.[9][10][5][12] With an operational fleet of 24 cargo aircraft, the airline's cargo division serves 82 destinations.[9][5]

The airline's corporate headquarters are at the Turkish Airlines General Management Building on the grounds of Istanbul Atatürk Airport in Yeşilköy, Bakırköy, Istanbul.[13] Istanbul Airport in Arnavutköy is the airline's main base, and there are secondary hubs at Ankara Esenboğa Airport and İzmir Adnan Menderes Airport. Turkish Airlines has been a member of the Star Alliance network since 1 April 2008.[14]

Turkish Airlines was established on 20 May 1933 as Turkish State Airlines (Turkish: Devlet Hava Yolları)[15] as a department of the Ministry of National Defense.[16] The airline's initial fleet consisted of two five-seat Curtiss Kingbirds, two four-seat Junkers F 13s and one ten-seat Tupolev ANT-9.[16] In 1935, the airline was turned over to the Ministry of Public Works and was subsequently renamed General Directorate of State Airlines. Three years later, in 1938, it became part of the Ministry of Transportation.[17]

Several Douglas DC-3s and Douglas C-47s were phased in during 1945.[18] Being initially set up as a domestic carrier, the airline commenced international services with the inauguration of AnkaraIstanbulAthens flights in 1947; with the DC-3s and C-47s enabling the carrier to expand its network.[16]

Nicosia, Beirut and Cairo were soon added to the airline's international flight destinations. However, domestic services remained the carrier's primary focus until the early 1960s.[19]

In 1956, the Turkish government reorganized the airline under the name Türk Hava Yolları A.O. (often abbreviated as THY).[16] It was capitalized at TRY 60 million. The airline joined the International Air Transport Association (IATA) shortly thereafter. In 1957, British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) began supplying technical support after acquiring a 6.5 percent shareholding, which it held for about 20 years.[19]

New aircraft including Vickers Viscounts, Fokker F27s and Douglas DC-3s were added to the fleet in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Turkish Airlines began operating their first jet, a McDonnell Douglas DC-9, in 1967. This was followed by the addition of three Boeing 707 jets in 1971. Other aircraft operated in the early 1970s included the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and the Fokker F28 which were put into service in 1972 and 1973 respectively.[16][19]

The airline was plagued by several issues in the 1980s and 90s. It developed a reputation for poor customer service and delays.[citation needed] It also endured hijackings and suffered seven accidents between 1974 and 1983. The most notorious was the 1974 crash of Turkish Airlines Flight 981, when an aircraft design flaw led to a faulty cargo door breaking off in flight near Ermenonville, France, resulting in the deaths of 346 people.

A new government came to power in 1983 which recognized THY's importance as Turkey's gateway to the world, beginning the airline's makeover into a modern operation. It would go on to maintain one of the youngest fleets in the world. Security was intensified, causing one shipper to compare it to Israel's El Al, at least in terms of delays.[19]

THY built a new, state-of-the-art technical center at Yeşilköy Airport in 1984. The airline was capable of both light and heavy maintenance on many different aircraft types. The technical staff then made up one-quarter of the airline's 6,000 employees, according to Air Transport World. In 1984, the company's capital was raised to 60 billion TL as it was classified as a state economic enterprise. Three years later, the capital was raised again, to 150 billion TL.

By the mid-1980s, THY had a fleet of 30 aircraft. It was flying approximately three million passengers a year to 16 domestic destinations and three dozen international ones. The airline was Turkey's largest source of foreign currency. Turkish Airlines began operating Airbus A310s in 1985, allowing the addition of flights to Singapore in 1986. A route to New York City via Brussels was added in 1988.[citation needed]

The company posted losses in 1987 and 1988, largely due to high payments on its dozen new Airbus A310s, according to Air Transport World. The fleet also included 11 Boeing 727s and nine Douglas DC-9s. THY ended the decade with 8,500 employees.[19]

The company suffered in the global aviation crisis following the Persian Gulf War and would not break-even again until 1994. However, the business was again booming in the mid-1990s, with the greatest growth coming from North American destinations.[citation needed] THY launched a nonstop flight to New York City in July 1994.

The company's capital continued to be raised, reaching 10 trillion TL in 1995. During that year, the airline also converted three of its Boeing 727s to dedicated freighters. The DC-9s had been sold off. The company posted a $6 million profit on revenues of $1 billion for the year. While profitable, THY had to contend with Turkey's exorbitant inflation, making capital improvements difficult.

The domestic market was deregulated in 1996, allowing new scheduled competition from charter airlines. At the same time, larger international carriers were providing stiff competition on routes to Western Europe. THY entered into marketing agreements with other international airlines to enhance their competitiveness. The company teamed with Japan Airlines to offer service to Osaka and Tokyo in 1997 and 1998. Other jointly operated flights soon followed with Austrian Airlines, Swissair, and Croatia Airlines.[19]

A new terminal opened in January 2000 at Istanbul's Istanbul Atatürk Airport. Turkish Airlines continued to extend their international reach, forging marketing agreements with Asiana Airlines, American Airlines, Malaysia Airlines, LOT Polish Airlines, Czech Airlines and Cathay Pacific in 2000. On October 29, 2000, THY withdrew from the Swissair-led Qualiflyer alliance to help attract a strategic investor for their privatization.[19][21] The airline had been part of the alliance's frequent-flyer program since November 1998.[21] An Antalya-Frankfurt route was added in 2001 through a code-sharing agreement with Sun Express.

Turkey underwent an economic crisis throughout most of 2001, leading to a reduction in traffic on domestic routes in particular. THY managed to survive after the September 11 attacks on the United States without a government bailout or mass layoffs, although 300 middle management positions were eliminated, 400 part-timers were laid off and wages were cut 10 percent. Turkish Daily News credited the airline's survival to entrepreneurial management, which was quick to get rid of loss-making routes at home and abroad.[citation needed]

In 2003, the war in Iraq prompted Turkish Airlines to close some routes in the Persian Gulf, while flights to Asia were suspended during the SARS epidemic. However, the airline soon recovered, increasing traffic on existing routes and adding service to Delhi after an 11-year lapse.

Another fleet expansion program kicked off in 2004, helping THY maintain one of the youngest fleets in Europe. In July that year, the airline announced a massive $2.8 billion order of 36 jets from Airbus, plus an order for 15 Boeing 737s.

THY was not just ordering new planes. It was planning to spend $350 million on a new technical and training facility at Istanbul's underutilized Sabiha Gökçen International Airport. The airline had built up a significant technical services operation, maintaining not just their aircraft but those of third parties. Turkish Technic employed 2,700 workers and was planning to hire another 2,000 by 2010. THY also had three flight simulators and offered flight training services.

The airline faced the entry of new competitors into the liberalizing Turkish aviation market. However, tourism was booming, with 20 million people expected to visit the country in 2005 versus 12 million in 2003. THY divested its 50% holding in Cyprus Turkish Airlines (Kıbrıs Türk Hava Yolları) in 2005.

Although the company was publicly traded at this time, the government-owned 98% of its shares. The privatization program was revived in 2004 with a public offering of 20% of shares on the Istanbul Stock Exchange. The Turkish government-owned 75% of shares after the offering, which raised $170 million. Currently, the Republic of Turkey's Prime Ministry Privatization Administration owns a 49.12% interest in THY, while 50.88% of shares are publicly traded.[22]

On 1 April 2008, Turkish Airlines joined the Star Alliance after an 18-month integration process beginning in December 2006, becoming the seventh European airline in the 20-member alliance.[23]

In April 2010, TURKISH replaced TURKAIR as the new call sign for Turkish Airlines.

In December 2011, the Turkish government unveiled plans to modernize the Aden Adde International Airport in Mogadishu, Somalia, which became one of the newest flight destinations of the carrier in 2012. The rehabilitation project is part of Turkey's broader engagement in the local post-conflict reconstruction process. Among the scheduled renovations are new airport systems and infrastructure, including a modern control tower to monitor the airspace.[24] In March 2012, Turkish Airlines became the first international carrier to resume flights to Somalia since the start of that country's civil war in the early 1990s.

By the end of 2013, Turkish Airlines had increased their number of flight points to 241 destinations worldwide (199 international and 42 domestic).[25]

In the wake of the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt, the Federal Aviation Administration temporarily banned flights between Turkey and the United States. This posed a particular problem for Turkish Airlines as a key component of the airline's strategy was to deliver one-stop journeys between the US and hard-to-reach destinations in Africa, the Middle East, and India.[26] This ban was lifted on 18 July, and Turkish Airlines resumed flights to the U.S. on 19 July after a three-day disruption.[27]

In August 2016, Turkish Airlines announced a profit collapse to a loss of 198 million Euros for the second quarter of 2016 while expecting an overall loss of 10 million passengers for 2016.[28] The airline already announced significant reductions in operations for the upcoming 2016/2017 schedule period with frequency cuts to 45 European and 13 intercontinental routes.[29][30] Turkish Airlines also announced an overall record loss of 1.9 billion Turkish Lira ($644.4 million) for the first half of 2016.[31]

The following year saw the airline recover, with financial results for 2017 showing an almost 35% increase in turnover, and a return to profitability.[32]

The airline head office is in the Turkish Airlines General Management Building at Istanbul Atatürk Airport in Yeşilköy, Bakırköy.[33]

As of March 2018, chairmanship was held by İlker Aycı.[34] Bilal Ekşi holds the deputy chairman and CEO positions.[35]

The key trends for Turkish Airlines for the past 15 years are shown below (as of December 2018):[36][37][38]



Miles&Smiles is the frequent-flyer programme of Turkish Airlines, inaugurated in 2000 after the airline left Qualiflyer.[62] Earned miles can be used on Turkish Airlines flights, as well as on flights operated by the entire Star Alliance network. Miles&Smiles Classic Plus members are entitled to Star Alliance Silver benefits, while Elite and Elite Plus Miles&Smiles status entitles the member to Star Alliance Gold benefits.[63]

Turkish Airlines has been the official carrier of several European football clubs such as Manchester United,[65] FC Barcelona,[66] Borussia Dortmund,[67][68] Olympique de Marseille,[69] Aston Villa,[70] FK Sarajevo,[71] and Hannover 96.[72]

The airline has also made sponsorship and promotion deals with renowned athletes and actors, including[73] Lionel Messi,[74] Kobe Bryant,[74] Caroline Wozniacki,[75] Kevin Costner,[76] Wayne Rooney,[76] and Didier Drogba.[77]

The company has been the primary sponsor of the Turkish Airlines EuroLeague since 2010[78] and was among the sponsors of the 2010 FIBA World Championship.[79]

On 22 October 2013, Turkish Airlines and Euroleague signed an agreement to prolong their existing sponsorship deal by five years until 2020.[80]

Turkish Airlines is the sponsor of the Turkish Airlines Open, a European Tour golf tournament played annually in Turkey since 2013.[81]

Turkish Airlines was the kit sponsor of Galatasaray for the 2014–15 UEFA Champions League and Bosnian club FK Sarajevo. Since then, the airline has continued its sponsorship of Galatasaray and has also been the kit sponsor for the European campaigns of other Turkish clubs such as Fenerbahçe and Başakşehir.

On 10 December 2015, Turkish Airlines and UEFA signed a sponsorship deal for the UEFA Euro 2016, becoming the first airline sponsor of UEFA European Championship tournaments.[82][83]

On 29 January 2016, Turkish Airlines announced its partnership with Warner Bros. to sponsor the film Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice. In the movie, a pivotal scene unfolds aboard a Turkish Airlines A330.[84] That year, the airline also teamed up with a number of Turkish tourist agencies in the production of the romantic comedy film Non-Transferable.[85]

On 14 September 2018, Turkish Airlines and Lega Basket Serie A,[86] the top-tier professional basketball league in Italy, signed a sponsorship agreement, making the airline an official partner for the 2018–19 LBA season.[87][88]

In February 2019, Turkish Airlines arranged to become partial sponsors for League of Ireland First Division side Drogheda United.[89]

In August 2019, Turkish Airlines reached an agreement with Club Atlético River Plate to become the main sponsor of the Argentine sports club for the next three seasons.[90]

As of 2019, Turkish Airlines flies to 315 destinations in 126 countries.[9][10][5]

Turkish Airlines codeshares with the following airlines:[91]

Turkish Airlines has interline agreements with the following airlines:[105][106]

As of May 2021, the Turkish Airlines fleet consists of the following aircraft:[108]

In October 2016, due to a downturn in air traffic, the airline had announced it was delaying delivery of 39 Boeing and Airbus aircraft (exact details were not specified) from its outstanding commitments for 167 aircraft (92 Airbus A321neos, 65 Boeing 737 MAX 8 and 10 Boeing 737 MAX 9s). It was set to receive just 10 of 32 aircraft due in 2018, but all outstanding orders are expected to be fulfilled by 2023.[120]

On 26 June 2019, the first Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner from the airline's March 2018 order was delivered to the airline.[121]

In August 2019, Turkish Airlines chairman İker Aycı stated that the carrier was looking into receiving its orders of long-haul aircraft, such as the Airbus A350-900, earlier than planned. In addition, the airline is interested in the Airbus A220 and Embraer E190/E195 in order to serve new destinations.[122][123]

The airline's "Eurowhite" livery features a white fuselage with blue lettering, a grey tulip on the fuselage running from the rear of the wing to the tail, and a red tail with the company logo in a white circle.

In the past, the airplanes were painted white on the top with four red stripes going across the fuselage and the white tail with a circle including the emblem; instead of a white emblem in a red circle for background, the emblem was red within a white circle. The bellies of the planes had an aluminium finish, while the nose was black, and text on the plane read "THY Türk Hava Yolları-Turkish Airlines" on the left side; on the right, the concept was the same with different text reading "Türk Hava Yolları-Turkish Airlines THY".

The "Eurowhite" livery (a white fuselage with blue lettering) and a grey tulip figure on the fuselage (running from the rear of the wing to the tail) have remained the same.

Turkish Airlines won the Skytrax awards for Europe's Best Airline, Southern Europe's Best Airline, and the World's Best Premium Economy Class Airline Seat for three consecutive years in 2011, 2012 and 2013,[124][125] and retained its status as Europe's Best Airline in 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2020, thereby holding the title for six years in a row.[126][127][128][129][130]

Additionally, Turkish Airlines was selected the Airline of the Year by Air Transport News at the 2013 Air Transport News Awards Ceremony.[131] In November 2017, Turkish Airlines was recognized as "The World's 16th Best Airline For Business Travel" by the CEOWORLD magazine.[132]

In June 2018, the airline announced that it would no longer be participating in the Skytrax World Airline Audit.[133]

Turkish Airlines Flight Academy was established by the 28th THY Board on 10 November 2004, and started training with 16 cadets on 1 May 2006. The Flight Academy is based at Istanbul Atatürk Airport and uses the nearby Çorlu Airport for training activities.[134][135]

The flight academy fleet consists of the following 14 aircraft:[136]

Turkish Airlines' maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) center, Turkish Technic, was incorporated in 2006 and is responsible for the maintenance of Turkish Airlines and other third party aircraft within eight hangars.[137] Capabilities include airframe, landing gear, APU and other subsystems.[138] Turkish Technic opened an engine center in partnership with Pratt & Whitney called TEC (Turkish Engine Center) in January 2010 at Sabiha Gökçen International Airport (SAW). The facility provides engine MRO services to customers worldwide.[139]

Turkish Technic was based at Istanbul Atatürk Airport within two hangars. It bought out MNG Technic along with its hangars, and the main complex moved to SAW with the building of two new hangars.[140] Two smaller hangars are also located at Ankara Esenboğa Airport. Additional hangars are being built at the new Istanbul Airport to accommodate the operator's growing fleet.[141]

In its history, Turkish Airlines has suffered a total of 19 incidents and accidents of which 15 were fatal. A total of 68 crew, 835 passengers and 35 people on the ground have been killed.


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